by


by
I. preposition Etymology: Middle English, preposition & adverb, from Old English, preposition, be, bī; akin to Old High German by, near, Latin ambi- on both sides, around, Greek amphi Date: before 12th century 1. in proximity to ; near <
standing by the window
>
2. a. through or through the medium of ; via <
enter by the door
>
b. in the direction of ; toward <
north by east
>
c. into the vicinity of and beyond ; past <
went right by him
>
3. a. during the course of <
studied by night
>
b. not later than <
by 2 p.m.
>
4. a. through the agency or instrumentality of <
by force
>
b. born or begot of c. sired or borne by 5. with the witness or sanction of <
swear by all that is holy
>
6. a. in conformity with <
acted by the rules
>
b. according to <
called her by name
>
7. a. on behalf of <
did right by his children
>
b. with respect to <
a lawyer by profession
>
8. a. in or to the amount or extent of <
win by a nose
>
b. chiefly Scottish in comparison with ; beside 9. — used as a function word to indicate successive units or increments <
little by little
>
<
walk two by two
>
10. — used as a function word in multiplication, in division, and in measurements <
divide a by b
>
<
multiply 10 by 4
>
<
a room 15 feet by 20 feet
>
11. in the opinion of ; from the point of view of <
okay by me
>
II. adverb Date: before 12th century 1. a. close at hand ; near b. at or to another's home <
stop by
>
2. past <
saw him go by
>
3. aside, away III. adjective or bye Date: 14th century 1. being off the main route ; side 2. incidental IV. noun or bye (plural byes) Date: 1567 something of secondary importance ; a side issue V. interjection or bye Etymology: short for goodbye Date: 1709 — used to express farewell; often used with following now

New Collegiate Dictionary. 2001.

Synonyms:


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